We studied members of the nationwide snowboarding group throughout the basic coaching season. Thirty-three members have been initially enrolled on this research. Nevertheless, solely 24 extremely educated male cross-country skiers (imply ± SD: age 22.8 ± 4.2 years, physique top 178.0 ± 4.2 cm, physique mass 178.0 ± 4.2 kg and maximal oxygen uptake 59.7 ± 6.9 mL·min− 1·kg− 1, physique fats 9.5%) accomplished the complete research protocol and have been included within the analyses. The anthropometric and physiological parameters of the examined athletes are proven in Desk 1.
The standards for qualifying for the research included age (18 to 33 years) and good well being with a legitimate and up-to-date medical certificates confirming the athlete’s potential to apply sports activities. Exclusion standards included illicit drug use, alcohol consumption better than 1–2 drinks/week, particular weight loss plan consumption inside 3 weeks of the research’s graduation, historical past of acute and exacerbated continual sicknesses, indicators of ARVI (Fig. 1).
The research protocol was reviewed and authorized by the Native Analysis Bioethics Committee of the Institute of Physiology of the Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Written knowledgeable consent was obtained from all members earlier than the research started. All procedures have been carried out in accordance with the moral requirements of the 1964 Helsinki Declaration .
For half 1, extremely educated male cross-country skiers met with the research assistant to obtain detailed directions for the completion of a modified 10-item Questionnaire of Merchandise Containing Fats for one month (its description is offered under). ALA consumption within the weight loss plan was calculated based mostly on the outcomes of this Questionnaire of Fat (QFat).
For half 2, extremely educated male cross-country skiers carried out a biking take a look at till exhaustion and venous blood sampling was carried out. The research process was once more defined, and potential questions have been answered earlier than acquiring knowledgeable written consent. Venous blood samples of 9 mL have been solely taken earlier than the biking take a look at till exhaustion and picked up into EDTA-coated vacutainers. MFO was decided by oblique calorimetry with full gasoline Evaluation. Information have been collected throughout the aggressive durations of 2017 and 2018.
Questionnaire of fat (QFat)
The athletes have been on a standardized balanced weight loss plan (within the SAF RK of the centre for sports activities coaching of nationwide groups) and lived in the identical metropolis. The research was carried out throughout the morning; due to this fact, all the volunteers consumed a standardized meal (400–420 kcal) consisting of 78 En% (share of the full power provided by the complete meal) carbohydrates, 14 En% fats and eight En% protein. The variety of energy within the breakfast was not normalized in response to physique weight. The dietary consumption of our members was assessed utilizing a questionnaire that included quantitative and frequency assessments.
An analogue of the QFat was a questionnaire based mostly on the American n-3 PUFA FFQ by Sublette et al., which was developed and authorized to estimate consumption of n-3 PUFAs within the New York space . QFat is an on-line screening questionnaire developed by us independently and contains an evaluation of the frequency consumption (for one month) of fat-containing merchandise and the precise quantity (in grams). The QFat was within the kind utilized by the unique programme “Assessing the adequacy of consumption of important fatty acids” (certificates GR № 2,016,662,728 from 20.12.2016), on the premise of which the on-line service “Fatty Acids in Merchandise” was created.
Contributors accomplished a 10-item QFat that quantifies the consumption of ALA. Briefly, the QFat enquires concerning the consumption of meals, together with dairy merchandise, cheeses, vegetable oil, fats merchandise, meat merchandise, fish, sweets, nuts, and quick meals. Particular emphasis was positioned on the ALA content material of all merchandise (e.g., vegetable oil, nuts, dairy merchandise, meat merchandise). For every meals, members reported the frequency of consumption over the previous month, with responses starting from by no means to a number of occasions every month, week, or day. If the participant responded that they consumed the meals (any reply apart from ‘by no means’), then they reported their typical portion measurement for every meals.
Contributors have been requested to report all meals consumed over a interval of 1 month as exactly as potential. They have been requested to point serving sizes utilizing photos from an tailored unique dietary programme “Fatty Acids in Merchandise” developed by us. At any time when potential, particular person components have been reported moderately than last meals, together with preparation strategies, model names, added oil, and so on. The significance of not altering consuming habits throughout the one month of recording was additionally pressured. Portion measurement responses have been in models of grams for meals and oil.
Biking take a look at till exhaustion
VO2max testing was carried out on an ergometer bike (Ergoselect-100, Ergoline GmbH, Germany). The protocol included one minute of biking with out load (for adaptation) after which a stepwise load enhance by 40 W in 2 min time increments beginning with an preliminary load of 120 W. The pedalling velocity was 60 rpm. Coronary heart fee (HR) and work load have been repeatedly recorded (each 15 s). Measurements (VO2 and VCO2) have been taken all through the train interval utilizing an automatic gasoline evaluation system (Jaeger Oxycon Professional, Wuerzberg, Germany) in “breath-by-breath” mode.
“FATmax” take a look at
To comprehensively outline the connection between the whole-body fats oxidation fee and train depth, the “FATmax” take a look at was used . This graded train take a look at elucidates whole-body fats oxidation charges throughout a variety of train intensities in addition to MFO and the depth at which MFO happens (FATmax) utilizing oblique calorimetry with full gasoline evaluation [8, 9, 22]. Calculations have been carried out utilizing the unique programme we developed (certificates GR № 2,019,613,060 from 06.03.2019). The take a look at protocol is fats oxidation (g.min− 1) towards VO2max throughout a graded biking FATmax take a look at, the place MFO (g.min− 1), and FATmax point out the depth at which MFO happens (W) . In keeping with the literature , cardio efficiency, estimated by way of MFO, is split into 3 teams: low (MFO < 0.37 g/min), medium (MFO 0.37–0.69 g/min) and excessive (MFO > 0.69 g/min). Normative values could possibly be used to outline the fats oxidation capability of given analysis cohorts in exercise-metabolic research in a fashion analogous to VO2max based mostly definitions of cardio capability .
ALA blood standing
The extent of ALA in plasma was decided utilizing gas-liquid chromatography. Blood samples have been taken from fasting topics at relaxation. Pattern preparation included extracting lipids from plasma and acquiring FA methyl ethers utilizing methanol and acetyl chloride as described by Lyudinina et al. . Fuel-liquid chromatography evaluation of the FA methyl ethers was carried out on a gasoline chromatograph (Crystal 2000М, Chromatek, Russia) with a flame ionization detector connected to a SUPELCOWAX (25 m × 0.23 mm) capillary column (Supelco, USA) at a temperature vary of 170 °C to 250 °C (retention time, 2 min). The temperature enhance fee was 4 °C/min (total time, 25 min). Helium was used because the service gasoline, the amount fee was 0.6 ml/min, and the move separation fee was 1/65. The evaporator temperature was 260 °C, and the detector temperature was 200 °C. FA identification was carried out utilizing Sigma requirements. The quantitative evaluation of the FА concentrations was carried out utilizing the interior customary of margarine acid answer (C17:0). The FA concentrations are expressed as a weight share of the full weight of FAs. The reported fasting technique of plasma whole FAs (mols%) in wholesome adults have been taken from a pre-existing supply .
The statistical procedures have been carried out and graphs have been generated with Statistica software program (model 8.0, StatSoft Inc., 2007, USA). The statistical outcomes are expressed because the imply ± customary deviation (M ± SD). The importance of variations between the indications was assessed utilizing the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U-test and Friedman take a look at (in response to information normality). Information normality was verified with the Shapiro-Wilk take a look at. The correlation coefficients between two variables have been decided by Spearman’s rank evaluation. A worth of p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically important.